Recent Advances in Natural Sciences
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans
<p>Recent Advances in Natural Sciences is an open access journal publishing original research from across all areas of Chemical Science, Geoscience, Physics, Mathematical Science, and Biological Sciences.</p> <ul> <li class="show">It offers our authors a highly respected home for their research</li> <li class="show">There is high visibility for your work with open access</li> <li class="show"><strong>ISSN(Print): <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/1596-0544">1596-0544</a> . </strong><strong>ISSN (Online): <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/1596-0757">1596-0757</a></strong></li> </ul>FLAYOO Publishing House LTDenRecent Advances in Natural Sciences1596-0544Global convergence properties of a Dai-Liao-type CGM for unconstrained optimization
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/30
<p>A popular optimization technique called the conjugate gradient method (CGM) is renowned for its effectiveness in addressing problems involving unconstrained optimization. Several conjugate gradient (CG) techniques have been proven to possess global convergence properties both theoretically and numerically. The Dai-Liao-type CGM is a variant that incorporates certain modifications to enhance its convergence properties. This paper examines the global convergence properties of a Dai-Liao-type CGM for unconstrained optimization problems. Theoretically, this study investigates the conditions under which the method ensures convergence to the global minimum of the objective function, focusing on the algorithm’s descent directions, the necessary reduction in objective function values, and termination criteria. A numerical experiment is conducted on a set of unconstrained optimization problems to validate the theoretical results obtained in this work. The numerical findings of this study demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the Dai-Liao-type CGM, showing its ability to find the global optimal solution in a wide range of unconstrained optimization problems.</p>
ArticlesUnconstrained optimizationConvergence propertiesDescent directionsObjective functionOluwaseun Biodun Onuoha
Copyright (c) 2024 Oluwaseun Biodun Onuoha
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2024-03-042024-03-04303010.61298/rans.2024.2.1.30Lithological and structural mapping of parts of southwestern Nigeria using aeromagnetic data
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/54
<p>There have been several magnitude earthquakes in Nigeria since 1933. However, their exact causes are yet unascertained. This study focuses on delineation of underground geologic frameworks and hydrothermal alteration zones that could encourage seismic energy transmission, groundwater storage and mineralization within parts of Southwestern Nigeria. Data optimization was conducted using vertical derivatives, horizontal derivative, upward continuation, and analytic signal approach. The study area is dissected by sinistral and dextral faults along NE-SW, NW-SE, N-S, E-W directions. The NE-SW trend is typical of major lithospheric processes and fracture lines cross-cutting formation(s) underlying Ikogosi warm spring, Ipole-Iloro waterfall, Arinta waterfall and Effon-Alaaye waterfall (all in Ekiti state), and Erin-Ijesha waterfall (Osun State) which also dominated the current position of granite and adjoining fractures. The quartzite belt stretching in NE–SW direction is an aquifer network with significant storage potential. The NNE-SSW trends is typical of major lithospheric processes and fracture lines cross-cutting formation(s) underlying Ikogosi warm spring, Ipole-Iloro waterfall, Arinta waterfall and Effon-Alaaye waterfall (all in Ekiti state), and Erin-Ijesha waterfall (Osun State) which also dominated the current position of granite and adjoining fractures. The quartzite belt stretching in NE–SW direction is an aquifer network with significant storage potential. The NNE-SSW trends relates to Ifewara-Kalangai fault while NW-SE depicts the separation of South American from African plate. The overlap between NW-SE and NE-SW lineaments suggest fractures produced by similar tectonic events, probably the Pan African orogeny. Also, locations of lineament intersection are plausible zones for groundwater, geothermal and hosts to mineralized targets as evidenced by small scale mining activities in the area. These fault lines serve as channels for the transmission of seismic energy that gives rise to earth tremors. The mapped lineaments serve as guide in solid mineral prospecting and geothermal exploration. Results from this study has enriched existing knowledge about future earthquake occurrence which will assist in hazard prevention.</p>
ArticlesEmmanuel IkeAdetola Sunday OnikuSabastine Chinedu EzikeRodney Ewusi-Wilson
Copyright (c) 2024 Emmanuel Ike, Adetola Sunday Oniku, Sabastine Chinedu Ezike, Rodney Ewusi-Wilson
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2024-01-202024-01-20545410.61298/rans.2024.2.1.54Spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data over parts of Southwestern Nigeria
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/53
<p>This study endeavors to assess spectral depths, explore Basement structure variability, and deduce geothermal heat distribution by determining Curie point depth (Z<em><sub>b</sub></em>) through aeromagnetic data analysis across 14 sheets in Southwestern Nigeria. The depths to the shallow magnetic source (Z<em><sub>t</sub></em>) range from 0.14286 km to 1.02632 km, indicating sediment thickness, with the deepest point situated in the Northwestern region and progressively shallower towards the central and Southern portions of the study area. Depths to the deeper magnetic source (Z<sub>0</sub>) span from 1.08333 km in the North-central part to 3.23529 km in the Southwestern part. The primary sources of the first layer (Z<em><sub>t</sub></em>) depth are intrusions/outcropping Basement rocks, while the second layer (Z<sub>0</sub>) results from the intrusion of magnetic rocks into the basement, intra-Basement fissures, and deeper magma intrusions below the bedrock. Curie point depth ranges from 1.87380 km to 6.25629 km, with the North-central region exhibiting the shallowest depths, followed by the Northeast, Northwest, and Southeast. Shallow Curie point depth is attributed to magma upwelling and magmatic intrusion in highly fractured quartzite units and older granite units, while deeper Curie point in the Southwestern part may result from isostatic compensation/recovery. Given that Curie point depths are shallower than 10 km, the study area holds geothermal resource potential, particularly in the North-central region. The correlation between estimated spectral depths from aeromagnetic data and observed geothermal signatures in the study area promises to be advantageous in the pursuit of alternative energy generation, potentially mitigating the effects of global warming.</p>
ArticlesAeromagnetic dataSpectral analysisSpectral depthsGeothermal Signatures, Curie point depthEmmanuel IkeAdetola Sunday OnikuSabastine Chinedu EzikeRodney Ewusi-Wilson
Copyright (c) 2024 Prof. A. S. Oniku, Dr. E. Ike, Dr. S. C. Ezike, Dr. R. Ewusi-Wilson
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2024-02-092024-02-09535310.61298/rans.2024.2.1.53On the convergence rate of d-dimensional fourth-order beta polynomial kernels
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/29
<p>This article focuses on formulating the Asymptotic Mean Integrated Squared Error (AMISE) scheme for <em>d</em>-dimensional fourth-order beta polynomial kernels in the context of kernel density estimation. The primary objective is to assess how this scheme influences the convergence rate, which directly impacts the speed at which the estimated density converges to the true density, contributing to bias reduction. The article employs AMISE as a metric to quantify the overall dissimilarity between the estimated density <em>f</em>ˆ and the true density <em>f </em>. Quantitatively, the proposed convergence scheme is compared to existing ones by Deheuvels and Jones <em>et al</em>. across various scenarios of sample sizes and dimensionalities. The study’s findings provide compelling evidence that fourth-order beta polynomial kernels exhibit a significantly faster convergence rate compared to the rates documented in the literature. This accelerated convergence rate implies a substantial improvement in bias reduction capabilities. The results underscore the potential effectiveness of fourth-order beta polynomial kernels as a powerful tool for enhancing the accuracy of kernel density estimation tasks.</p>
ArticlesKernel density estimationd-dimensional fourth-order kernelsbeta polynomial kernelsAMISE, rate of convergenceBenson Ade Eniola Afere
Copyright (c) 2023 Benson Ade Eniola Afere
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2023-11-292023-11-29292910.61298/rans.2023.1.2.29Characteristics of temperature-dependent shear flow in an ultrasonicated ferrofluid
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/28
<p>The rheological effect of manganese zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite ferrofluid was studied and the impact of temperature on the magnetoviscosity and viscoelastic system of manganese-zinc ferrite ferrofluid generated by co-precipitation process is investigated. At 25 <sup>◦</sup>C, a ferrofluid structure that is both hard and elastic is produced. As the temperature rises, the fluid structure loses its elasticity and becomes semi-rigid. When a low relaxation modulus is applied, the fluid behavior, which is temperature-dependent, exhibits the development of linear stress relaxation and steady state flow. When a greater relaxation modulus is used, non-steady state flow results. At a high temperature of 50 <sup>◦</sup>C, steady state flow is quickly obtained, whereas at a low temperature, equilibrium or steady state is attained more slowly. At low temperatures, the fluid exhibits a solid-like structure, whereas at high temperatures, a liquid-like structure forms as the fluid’s viscosity decreases. With the creation of yield stress in the region with high shear rates, shear stress increases with temperature, and yield stress increases with temperature. The viscoelastic system is underdamped, and the amount of fluid deflected at 25 <sup>◦</sup>C is small, which prevents the disruption of the fluid’s rheology. This develops as a result of the presence of a small deflection angle, which facilitates the development of high magnetoviscosity at low temperature. High viscous effect forms at low temperatures due to the creation of low shear stress and low deflection angle at temperature 25 <sup>◦</sup>C. The sample has a single phase and FCC structure, which X-ray diffraction research has verified.</p>
ArticlesStrain rateComplex viscosityTorqueMagnetizationCoercivityShear stressModulusAbideen A. Ibiyemi
Copyright (c) 2023 Abideen A. Ibiyemi
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2023-11-282023-11-28282810.61298/rans.2023.1.2.28Thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures of methyl acetate and some selected ketonesat varying compositions and temperatures
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/13
<p>Density and viscosity measurements of binary mixtures of methyl acetate with propanone, butan-2-one and pentan-2-one were carried out at varying compositions (0 to 1) of methyl acetate and temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40<sup>◦</sup>C. The experimental data obtained were correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation from where excess molar volumes (V<sup>E </sup>), excess viscosities (η<sup>E</sup>), excess Gibbs free energies of activation for viscous flow (ΔG<sup>*E</sup> ), fitting coefficients and standard deviations of the mixtures were calculated. The η<sup>E</sup> values were positive for mixtures of butan-2-one and pentan-2-one at all compositions and temperatures but gradually decrease with increasing composition and temperature. The mixtures of methyl acetate with propanone showed negative values of excess viscosity at all compositions of methyl acetate. The negative values are observed to be directly proportional to temperature. The values of V<sup>E </sup>for mixtures of methyl acetate + propanone system display positive deviations at lower compositions (0-0.4) and negative for higher mole fractions. The excess molar volumes of mixtures of butan-2-one and pentan-2-one are negative at the studied compositions and temperatures with a minimum at 0.3 composition and subsequent gradual decrease in negativity with increasing composition. The excess Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow (ΔG<sup>*E</sup> ) are positive at all compositions and temperatures and reaches a maximum at 0.3 composition above which it decreases. These results have been interpreted on the basis of the type and nature of interactions as well as differences in molecular architecture between the solvent mixtures.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p>
ArticlesGrace A. CookeyNgozi J. MaduelosiEdikan A. Udo
Copyright (c) 2023 Grace A. Cookey, Ngozi J. Maduelosi, Edikan A. Udo
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2023-12-052023-12-05131310.61298/rans.2023.1.2.13Copper catalysis the synthesis of functionalized glycine-based sulphonamides: In silico and in vitro antibacterial studies
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/36
<p>The synthesis of functionalized glycine-based sulphonamides via copper catalyzed N-arylation reaction and the in silico, in vitro antibacterial studies is reported. The procedure involved the initial synthesis of substituted p-toluenesulphonamides and substituted benzenesulphonamides by the reaction of glycine with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride and benzenesulphonyl chloride respectively in aqueous basic medium. The syn[1]thesized compounds were acetylated by reacting them with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate followed by acylation and amidation to yield amidated p-toluenesulphonamides and benzenesulphonamides respectively. Copper catalyzed N-arylation of the amidated products with aryltriolborates resulted in the synthesis of benzene, and 2-chlorophenyl derivatives of the amidated products. The synthesized compounds were characterized using FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis and the spectra were in agreement with the assigned structures. The in silico antibacterial studies revealed that the compounds possess significant antibacterial potency in the respective bacteria cells and could be further employed as potential anti-bacterial agents. The in vitro antimicrobial study revealed that most of the synthesized compounds possess antibacterial activities.</p> <p> </p>
ArticlesCopper N-arylation Functionalized Sulphonamides glycineIn silico studiesA. D. JacobU. C. OkoroA. J. Dauda
Copyright (c) 2024 A. D. Jacob, U. C. Okoro, A. J. Dauda
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2024-02-052024-02-05363610.61298/rans.2024.2.1.36Characterizations of some discarded shells particles polymer-based composites for ceilings and particles board applications
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/17
<p>Sea-shells, periwinkle-shells, and snail-shells were pulverized into 35.5 µ<em>m </em>particle sizes. Using a two-roll Rheomixer with a rotor speed of 60 rpm for 10 minutes, the particles were thoroughly mixed with the binders in ratio 2:1 and placed in the compression mold of dimension 15 cm by 3 cm by 3 cm using a force of 1.5 kN. The Rockwell hardness tester on scale B with a 1.56 mm steel ball, optical microscope and Flexural tester were used to characterize the composites. Thermo-gravimetric analyzer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer were used to characterize the shell particles. According to the results, epoxy resin (bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether poly) and hardener (isophoromediamine) composites containing periwinkle shell particles had the highest hardness number of 48 and could withstand maximum flexural load of 5.5 MPa ether poly) and hardener (isophoromediamine) proved to be the best epoxy resin. All the shell particleS functional groups were visible in the FTIR analysis with varying transmittances at their respective wavenumbers. Optical micrographs of the composites showed uniform distribution of the reinforcement and the matrix, thermo-gravimetric analyses demonstrated good thermal stability of the shell-particles up to 250 <sup>◦</sup>C</p>
ArticlesPVAthermo-gravimetric isophoromediamineMufutau Abiodun Salawu Ibrahim K. AyinlaMashood A. SalahudeenJoshua A. Adeoye Peter T. JegedeSabastine C. EzikeOluwatoyin O. OlasanmiFrancis O. OmoniyiAderemi .B. Alabi
Copyright (c) 2023 Mufutau Abiodun Salawu, Ibrahim K. Ayinla, Mashood A. Salahudeen, Joshua A. Adeoye, Peter T. Jegede, Sabastine C. Ezike, Oluwatoyin O. Olasanmi, Francis O. Omoniyi, Aderemi .B. Alabi
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2023-11-282023-11-28171710.61298/rans.2023.1.2.17Two-step one-pot speciation of chromium as Cr-APDC-and-NaEDTA complexes followed by ETA-AAS analysis
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/43
<p>A two-step preconcentration method involving solid-and-liquid-phase extraction procedures has been proposed for the speciation of chromium in a one-pot system. The method used sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaEDTA) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC). The Cr(VI)-APDC was extracted with ethyl acetate and digested with nitric acid. while the Cr(III)-EDTA complex ion was adsorbed onto Al2O3 (neutral grade) with the aid of a tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) pairing agent and desorbed with a hydrochloric acid solution. Sample splitting was not required. The ZEEnit 650P, electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometer, (ETA-AAS) was employed for the analysis. The concentration of the chromium (III) in the samples ranged from 1.83±0.00 µg L−1 to 106.28±0.21 µg L−1, while <LOD to 19.85±0.12 µg L−1 was the range of Cr(VI) concentration in the samples. Recovery from spiked samples was between 83% and 117% Cr(III) and 79% and 99% Cr(VI). Precision (n = 6), was 1.87% for Cr(III) and 7.67% for Cr(VI). The limits of detection (LODs), calculated by the Aspect LS software (3σ, n = 11) were 0.42 µg L−1 and 0.62 µg L−1 for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) respectively. The mean total chromium (n = 3), from the certified reference material (CRM), LGC6019 was 0.74±0.61 µg L−1, (certified value = 0.78±0.20 µg L−1). The preconcentration factor: ratio of the Cr(III) content of CRM before and after preconcentration was 3.57. Parameters such as pH, time, temperature, and the amount of adsorbent were optimized by the isolation method. The method was validated and applied for the speciation analysis of chromium in water samples.</p> <p> </p>
ArticlesOne-potChromium ion pairingETA-AASNaEDTAS. O. SalihuN. K. A. Bakar
Copyright (c) 2024 S. O. Salihu, N. K. A. Bakar
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2024-04-172024-04-17434310.61298/rans.2024.2.1.43Annealing effect on morphology, surface roughness and structure of thermally evaporated tin oxide thin films
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/38
<p>SnO<sub>2 </sub>thin films were produced utilizing the Thermal Vacuum Evaporation method on quartz substrates. Three samples—FAA, FV-200, and FA-400—were made and labelled. While samples of the FV-200 and FA-400 were annealed at 200 <sup>◦</sup>C and 400 <sup>◦</sup>C, respectively, the as deposited thin film is FAA. The root mean square (RMS) roughness, uniformity, and average roughness of the films were all measured using the atomic force microscope. The film was spherical after being annealed at 400 <sup>◦</sup>C, covering the substrate more uniformly with erratic growth. The as-deposited film exhibits an uneven distribution of grains of varying sizes. The sample showed consistent grain development after being annealed at 200 <sup>◦</sup>C. The root mean square values of samples FAA, FV-200, and FA400 are 42.2 nm, 41.7 nm, and 112.7 nm. The XRD technique was used to the strongest of which could be seen at 2θ = 300, or the (200) plane of Sn metal. The thin film was annealed in vacuum at 200 <sup>◦</sup>C and revealed three more peaks, with the strongest peak appearing at 2θ = 30<sup>◦</sup>, which is consistent with an enhanced structure of Sn metal thin film. The sample annealed at 400 <sup>◦</sup>C revealed high surface roughness compare to other samples and its films are clearly defined, spherical, and cover the substrate more evenly. Whereas, a mixture of large and small grains with uneven distribution throughout the substrate and poor film homogeneity was reveal by film without heat treatment.</p>
ArticlesTin filmsThermal vacuum evaporationRoot mean squareAbideen A. IbiyemiM. A. IlyasJamiu Lawal
Copyright (c) 2023 Abideen A. Ibiyemi, M. A. Ilyas, Jamiu Lawal
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2023-11-262023-11-26383810.61298/rans.2023.1.2.38Assessment of radionuclide distribution and associated radiological hazards of soils in Mayo-Belwa, Adamawa state
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/25
<p>Mayo-Belwa Local Government Area has been reported to have deposits of Uranium; hence this study was carried out to measure radionuclide activities in Mayo-Belwa soils and to monitor their potential impact on human health. Soils from a depth of 10 cm were collected from each location, using CANBERA NaI (Tl) detector, the activity concentration of radionuclides of 10 soil samples was measured. The radionuclide concentration ranged between 72.7069 - 116.8504 <em>Bq</em>.<em>kg</em><sup>−1 </sup>for <sup>238</sup>U (measured by <sup>226</sup>Ra activity), 148.9168 -981.4994 <em>Bq</em>.<em>kg</em><sup>−1 </sup>for <sup>40</sup>K and 22.3332 - 108.5203 <em>Bq</em>.<em>kg</em><sup>−1</sup>for <sup>232</sup>Th. The gamma absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, ranged between 61.3932138.1076 <em>nGyh</em><sup>−1 </sup>, 0.0830 - 0.211 <em>mSvy</em><sup>−1 </sup>with mean values of 95.1762 ± 21.5257 and 0.1216±0.0359 respectively. The values obtained were compared with the reported data from UNSCEAR, 2000 and ICRP 2005. The excess lifetime cancer risk ranged between 0.00026-0.00061 with an average value of 8.44×10<sup>−4</sup>. The gamma, internal and external hazard indices ranged between 0.4631-1.0975, 0.5969- 0.9978 and 0.3601-0.8087 respectively. However, dose rates recorded in all locations were above the 60 <em>nGyh</em><sup>−1 </sup>recommended limits by UNSCEAR 2000. Furthermore, Ganglare had a gamma index above 1, implying a significant radiation hazard. Also, the average excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) of 0.844 × 10<sup>−3 </sup>was relatively high (t < 0.05) and compared to the world average value of 0.29 ×10<sup>−3</sup>. With the help of this study, we were able to establish the fundamental facts about the levels of radioactivity and related radiological dangers that exist in the soil of Mayo-Belwa Local Government.</p>
ArticlesRadioactivityGamma SpectroscopySoilHazard IndicesI. CatherineO. C. MeluduO. P. IdowuDolapo S. OlaniyanKolawole. E. Adesina
Copyright (c) 2023 I. Catherine, O. C. Meludu, O. P. Idowu, Dolapo S. Olaniyan, Kolwole. E. Adesina
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2023-11-262023-11-26252510.61298/rans.2023.1.2.25Modelling Patients Waiting and Service Time by ARIMA Model: A Case of Federal University Gusau Clinic
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/7
<p>The ability to model and forecast waiting and service time to increase patients' satisfaction, reduce waiting time, avoid casualties, and increase efficiency in service delivery is crucial. It encourages the identification of future pressure by using the relevant key performance indicators. In this paper, the ARIMA model is used to study the waiting and service time of patients at the {\it Federal University Gusau} Health Services Clinic. The system was a single, time-independent arrival with many service points. Based on the results found in the waiting and service processes, the service time has a lower mean and variance when compared to the waiting time. The waiting time has a lower skewness and kurtosis when compared to the service time. The Ljung-Box (Q) Statistic test shows that the correlation in the time series has been adequately captured for the waiting and service time processes, though the waiting and service time processes have 4 and 10 outliers respectively. The ARIMA (0,1,2) and ARIMA (2,1,1) are selected for modelling the waiting and service time respectively based on the evaluation metrics.</p>
ArticlesWaiting TimeService TimeARIMAModellingOutliersAliyu MoyiKabir BelloOlayemi IbidojaGarba Muhammad
Copyright (c) 2023 Aliyu Usman Moyi, Kabir Bello, Olayemi Joshua Ibidoja, Garba Muhammad
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2023-08-202023-08-207710.61298/rans.2023.1.1.7Proximate Analysis of Telfairia Occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) and Telfairia Pedata (Oyster Nut) Leaves Consumed in Katsina Metropolis: A Comparative Study
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/8
<p><em>Telfairia occidentalis </em>and <em>Telfairia pedata </em>are highly valued for their nutritious seeds and are consumed widely in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the potential application of their leaves was not thoroughly investigated and documented. Therefore, proximate analysis of their leaves for potential applications is sacrosanct. Samples of the leaves were obtained from the Katsina metropolis and analysed for their proximate compositions using standard analytical procedures. The result indicates that the percentage carbohydrate, crude <em>fibre</em>s, and moisture contents values for <em>Telfairia pedata </em>and <em>Telfairia occidentalis </em>leaves were 49.23±0.79, 19.50±0.31, 62.06±0.49 and 49.44±0.55,14.68±1.04, and 71.40±0.31, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were 16.04±0.51, 2.00±0.50, 13.33±0.31 and 22.45±0.50, 4.80±0.34, and 8.60±0.21 for <em>Telfairia pedata </em>and <em>Telfairia </em><em>occidentalis</em>, respectively. The crude <em>fibre</em> and ash content were higher in <em>Telfairia Pedata </em>than in <em>Telfairia Occidentalis </em>leaves. There was no significant difference in the carbohydrate content of the leaves. However, the crude protein, moisture content, and lipid were higher in the <em>Telfairia Occidentalis </em>leaf. The leaves could be a good carbohydrate, protein, and dietary fibre sourc<em>e</em>. However, further study is recommended on the leaves’ anti-nutrients, mineral and phytochemical analyses</p>
ArticlesTelfairia occidentalisFluted pumpkinTelfairia pedataOyster nutproximate analysisKatsinaYahaya AuwalAbdulhamid MurtalaNaziru ImamMagaji Ilu Barde
Copyright (c) 2023 Yahaya Auwal, Abdulhamid Murtala, Naziru Imam, Magaji Ilu Barde
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2023-08-252023-08-258810.61298/rans.2023.1.1.8Assessment of Activity concentrations of radioactive elements in selected groundwater samples of Kwara State Polytechnic and its environs, North Central Nigeria
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/6
<p>A NaI (TI) indicator was used to quantify the activity concentrations level of Uranium (U-238), Thorium (Th-232) & Potassium (K-40) in forty (40) groundwater samples collected across the premises of Kwara state polytechnic and its environs in order to determine the health hazard due intake of drinking water which has its origin from the subsurface. This investigation became necessary as a result of an outbreak of water borne diseases reported by the medical personnels in the clinics around the area. The results obtained from this measurement shows a range of values from 1.01 ± 0.02 to 8.21 ± 1.73, a mean of 3.88 ± 0.609 Bq.l<sup>−1 </sup>for U-238, 0.97 ± 0.01 to 14.81 ± 2.79, a mean value of 7.02 ± 0.99 Bq.l<sup>−1 </sup>Th-232 & 4.44 ± 0.12 to 147.33 ± 6.59 Bq.l<sup>−1</sup>, a mean of 48.08 ± 2.513 Bq.l<sup>−1 </sup>for K-40. The mean of these Radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) are higher than the Universal value 10 Bq.l<sup>−1 </sup>for K-40 and 1 Bq.l<sup>−1 </sup>for U-238 and Th-232 as the permissible level for drinking water (United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic radiation recommended (UNSCEAR)). In addition, most of the average values of the calculated radiological indices are within the recommended allowable tolerable boundary, although higher values were obtained in some within the study area. These results shows that U-238, Th-232 and K-40 concentrations and radiological parameters in the samples are high and low in values but might take a Probabilistic effect on the residents in the near future</p>
ArticlesGroundwaterRadionuclides Radiological parametersNaI (TI) indicatorTaofeeq Olanrewaju LawalSunday John AbayomiOluwakorede Fawale
Copyright (c) 2023 Taofeeq Olanrewaju Lawal, Sunday John Abayomi, Oluwakorede Fawale
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2023-08-202023-08-206610.61298/rans.2023.1.1.6The Correlation of Geothermal Energy Potential Deduced from Aeromagnetic and Aeroradiometric Data of Akiri and Environs, North-Central Nigeria
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/5
<p>The aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric data were combined to investigate the geothermal energy potential of Akiri and Environs, North-Central Nigeria. The aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric data were obtained from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA), Abuja. The data consists of nine square map sheets of Wamba, Kwolla, Shendam, Lafia, Akiri, Ibi, Makurdi, Akwana and Wukari. The LANDSAT imagery data of the study area was obtained from the National Centre for Remote Sensing, Jos. The spectral analysis method was applied to aeromagnetic data to obtain the geothermal parameters of the magnetic sources. The results show that the depth-to-top of magnetic sources in the study area ranges between 0.76 and 4.46 km; while the depth-to-centroid ranges between 7.29 and 19.6 km. The depth-to-bottom of magnetic sources corresponds to the Curie point depth (CPD) in the study area which is the depth at which magnetic rocks lose their magnetism. The results show that the CPD varies between 12.70 and 37.22 km, the geothermal gradient varies between 15.58 and 45.67 <sup>◦</sup>C/km, and the geothermal heat flow varies between 38.9 and 114.17 mW/m<sup>2</sup>. Two dimensional structural models were constructed to show the estimated depths at each profile taken. The models show uplifted crust and mantle in some areas due to magmatic intrusions which gave rise to low CPDs (12 to 28 km) which resulted to high geothermal heat flow values (60 to 115 mW/m<sup>2</sup>). The results show that there are low values of CPD in some areas which indicates that the study area has geothermal energy potential. The study shows that the geothermal energy potential deduced from aeromagnetic data correlates well with the geothermal energy potential deduced from aeroradiometric data.</p>
ArticlesKeywords: Geothermal energy, Curie point depth, Geothermal heat, Aeroradiometric heat and LANDSAT Imagery.Bemsen Emmanuel Ikumbur
Copyright (c) 2023 Bemsen Emmanuel Ikumbur
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2023-08-282023-08-285510.61298/rans.2023.1.1.5Some Numerical Significance of the Riemann Zeta Function
https://flayoophl.com/journals/index.php/rans/article/view/4
<p>In this paper, the Riemann analytic continuation formula (RACF) is derived from Euler’s quadratic equation. A nonlinear function and a polynomial function that were required in the derivation were also obtained. The connections between the roots of Euler’s quadratic equation and the Riemann Zeta function (RZF) are also presented in this paper. The method of partial summation was applied to the series that was obtained from the transformation of Euler’s quadratic equation (EQE). This led to the derivation of the RACF. A general equation for the generation of the zeros of the analytic continuation formula of the Riemann Zeta equation via a polynomial approach was also derived and thus presented in this work. An expression, which was based on a polynomial function and the products of prime numbers, was also obtained. The obtained function thus afforded us an alternative approach to defining the analytic continuation formula of the Riemann Zeta equation (ACFR). With the new representation, the Riemann Zeta function was shown to be a type of function. We were able to show that the solutions of the RACF are connected to some algebraic functions, and these algebraic functions were shown to be connected to the polynomial and the nonlinear functions. The tables and graphs of the numerical values of the polynomial and the nonlinear function were computed for a generating parameter, k, and shown to be some types of the solutions of some algebraic functions. In conclusion, the RZF was redefined as the product of a derived function, <em>R</em>(<em>t<sub>n</sub></em>,<em>s</em>), and it was shown to be dependent on the obtained polynomial function.</p>
ArticlesAnalytic ContinuationPolynomialNumerical EstimateNon-trivial zerosOpeyemi O. EnochLukman O. Salaudeen
Copyright (c) 2023 Opeyemi O. Enoch, Lukman O. Salaudeen
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2023-08-272023-08-274410.61298/rans.2023.1.1.4